Top Important Dates in world history

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776      : First Olympiad in Greece.

753      : Rome founded.
490      :Battle of Marathon; the Greeks defeated the Iranians/ Persians
327-26 : Invasion of India by Alexander, Battle of Hydaspes
221       : Chin-Hung Ti ‘Univesral Emperor in China, Great Wall of China completed
55         :Invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar the Great Roman General
44        :Assassination of Julius Caesarby Brutus
4          :Birth of Jesus Christ


29        Crucifixion of Jesus Christ
43 Roman conquest of Britain.
570 Birth of Prophet Muhammad at Mecca
622 Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina (‘Fijird), Beginning of Hijira Era
(Muhammadan calender) on July 15
800 Charlemagne crowned Roman Emperor at St. Peter’s.
871 Accession of Alfred the Greatto the throne of Britain
901 Death of King Alfred the Great.

Mughal Period (1526-40 and 1555-1857 (Babur:1526-30)

Mughal Period (1526-40 and 1555-1857

The foundation of the Mughal rule in India was laid by Babur in 1526
– Babur was a escendant of Timur (from the side of his father) and Chengi
(from the side of his mother)
Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on April 21, 15
and established Mughal dynasty which lasted till the establis
rule in India

  • In 1527, he defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa
  • In 1528, he defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at Chander
  • In 1530, he died at Agra. His tomb is at Kabul.
  • Babur wrote his autobiography Tuzuk- Babuni in Turki in which heves
  • In 1529, he efeated Muhammad Lodhi (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhil at
  •  Babur adopted Tughluma and flanking party system gunpowder and artillery in India excellent account of India and his empire. Tuzuk-i-Baburi was Persian (named /)by Abdur RahimMadam Bembridge
  • Babur compiled two anthologies of poems, Diwan (in Turki) andPersian). He also wrote Risal-i-Usaz or letters of Babur
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what is Latitude, Longitude,Local Time (LT) and Time Zones?

Latitude and Longitude

Any location on Earth is described by two
numbers -its latilude and its longitude
On a globe of the Earth, lines of latitude are
circles of different size. The longest is the equaton
whose latitude is zero, while at the poles at
latitudes 90 north and 90 south (or -909) the
circles shrink to a point
On the globe, lines of constant longitude
(meridians’) extend from pole to pole
Every meridian must cross the equator Since the equator is a circle, we can
divide it-like any circle-into 360 degrees, and the longitude of a point is then the
marked value of that division where its meridian meets the equator
For historical reasons, the longitude (meridian) passing the old Royal
Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich, England, is the one chosen as zero
longitude. Located at the eastern edgeof London, the British capital, the observatory
is now a public museum and a brass bandstretching across its yard marks the ‘prime

A line of longitude is also called a meridian, derived from the Latin, from
meri, a variation of ‘medius which denotes middle, and diem, meaning day
The word once meant “noon, and times of the day before noon were known as
ante meridian, while times after it were ‘post meridian, Today’s abbreviations
am.and pm come from these terms and the Sun at noon was said to be pasing
meridian” All points on the same line of longitude experienced noon (and any
other hour) at the same time and were therefore sald to be on the same “meridián

Local Time (LT) and Time Zones

Two important concepts,related to latitude and (especially)longitude are Local
Time (LI) and Universal Time (UT)
·Longitudes are measured from zero to 180″ east and 180° west (or-180°), and
both 180- degree longitudes share the same line, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean
As the Earth rotates around its axis, at any moment one line of longitude “the
n meridian” faces the Sun, and at that moment, it will be noon everywhere on it.
After 24 hours the Earth has undergone a full rotation with respect to the Sun, and
Tc same meridian again faces noon. Thus each hour the Earth rotaten by 360/24-
The Date Line and Universal Time (UD

The Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization
The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization, more precisely known as Harappan Civilization. It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, what today is Pakistan and Western India. The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. Nothing was known about this civilization till 1920s when the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus valley wherein the ruins of the two old cities, viz. Mohenjodaro and Harappa were unearthed. The ruins of buildings and other things like household articles, weapons of war, gold and silver ornaments, seals, toys, pottery wares, etc., show that some four to five thousand years ago a highly developed Civilization flourished in this region.
The Indus valley civilization was basically an urban civilization and the people lived in well-planned and well-built towns, which were also the centers for trade. The ruins of Mohenjodaro and Harappa show that these were magnificent merchant cities-well planned, scientifically laid, and well looked after. They had wide roads and a well-developed drainage system. The houses were made of baked bricks and had two or more storeys.
The highly civilized Harappans knew the art of growing cereals, and wheat and barley constituted their staple food. They consumed vegetables and fruits and ate mutton, pork and eggs as well. Evidences also show that they wore cotton as well as woollen garments. By 1500 BC, the Harappan culture came to an end. Among various causes ascribed to the decay of Indus Valley Civilization are the recurrent floods and other natural causes like earthquake, etc.

Vedic Civilization

The Vedic civilization is the earliest civilization in the history of ancient India. It is named after the Vedas, the early literature of the Hindu people. The Vedic Civilization flourished along the river Saraswati, in a region that now consists of the modern Indian states of Haryana and Punjab. Vedic is synonymous with Hinduism, which is another name for religious and spiritual thought that has evolved from the Vedas.
The Ramayana and Mahabharata were the two great epics of this period.